Hazard identification and risk assessment | HIRA

Rahul Kashyap


To lay down procedure for Hazards Identification and Risk Assessment of the operations carried out for Occupational Health & Safety impacts associated with its activities, products & processes.


The concerned Department Head initiates the process of identifying hazards related to all operation in their department. The process includes soliciting inputs from all personnel of the concerned section, as appropriate.
Consider the process flow of each such operation & divide it into different activities, so that each activity can be considered separately for identifying the hazard 
While dividing operations into activities, consider following points:
ACTIVITIES (e.g. handling of hazardous materials, storage, Processing, etc.).
SERVICES (e.g. Transportation, Maintenance, washing, conditioning, etc.).
PRODUCTS (e.g. raw materials, in process materials, packing materials, finished products, Bye-products, etc.).

Classify activities into ‘Direct’ and ‘Indirect’:

DIRECT(D): Those which are under the direct control of the organization.
INDIRECT(I): Those which are not under the organization’s direct control, but over which it can be expected have an influence (e.g. the activities performed by the contractors, sub-contractors, suppliers or neighbors).
Hazard: Hazard defines as a “source or situation with a potential to cause injury and ill health”. Hazard identification should consider the following types of hazards in the workplace -
Physical Hazards:  Electricity, Noise and vibration, Heat & cold, Dust & fibers, Radiation, exposed moving machinery parts, Occupational Overuse Syndrome (OOS).
Chemical Hazards: Liquids (e.g. office supplies, cleaning products, paints, acids), Vapors and fumes (e.g. welding fumes, toluene), Gases (e.g. oxygen, acetylene, propane, carbon monoxide), Flammable (e.g. Alcohol, PA), combustible, and explosive materials (e.g. LPG).
Biological Hazards: Unclean rest rooms, improperly stored medical waste, Mould, fungus, and mildew, Bacteria & viruses, Plants (e.g. poison ivy), Insect stings, Animal bites.
Ergonomic Hazards: Lighting, Workstation layout, Video Display Terminals (VDTs), Work surfaces, Chairs, Color, Lifting, Repetitive movements, Posture, Shift work.
Psychological hazard:  any hazard that affects the mental well-being or mental health of the worker by overwhelming individual coping mechanisms and impacting the worker’s ability to work in a healthy and safe manner.
Human behavior & other factors: Human behavior and safety, Perception of risk and human error, Organizational control and human reliability, Principles of communication (verbal and non-verbal communication), Interpersonal skills, Health and safety culture, Change and change management, Stress and stress management, Mental Capabilities and Limits, working hours, Labeling, Controls should operate as expected, Process design.
Identify Hazards under all the following conditions for each activity:
Routine (R)- Regular activities comes in this condition (e.g. leak test, machine operation)
Non routine (NR) conditions – Non- regular activities which to be perform in some cases (e.g. breakdown activities, etc.).
Emergency (E) conditions-  All the emergency situation comes in this condition (e.g. possibility of fire hazard, leakage of hazardous gas, fall from height etc.).
The determinations of significant occupational health & safety hazard are based on the best judgment of the professionals involved in the process, with advice of EHS Department and other expert of the matter.
Risk is the combination of the probability or frequency of occurrence of a defined hazards or opportunity and the magnitude of the consequences of the occurrence. Hazards identification & Risk assessment is a term used to describe the overall process or method where you:
Identify hazards and risk factors that have the potential to cause harm (hazard identification).
Analyze and evaluate the risk associated with that hazard (risk analysis, and risk evaluation).
Determine appropriate ways to eliminate the hazard, or control the risk when the hazard cannot be eliminated (risk control).
All identified Health & Safety Hazards related to company’s products, activities & services shall be assigned a Risk Rating for each of the factors like, Occurrence Probability & Severity.
The total Risk Rating of a Hazard shall be calculated as follows:
Total Risk Rating(TRR):  OP x S
Matrix HIRA
hazard identification and risk assessment

On the basis of TRR following Matrix is prepared-
hazard identification and risk assessment matrix
hazard identification and risk assessment Matrix

Risk based Control Plan- Following are the control plan as per risk category-

All Hazards having Total Risk Rating equal to or more than ‘9’ & covered under legislation shall be considered UNACCEPTABLE Hazard. All emergency Hazards shall be taken care of through On-Site Emergency Plan.
Acceptable risk: is defined as “risk that has been reduced to a level that can be tolerated by the organization having regard to its legal commitments.
Unacceptable risk: is defined as “risk that has been exceed to a level that cannot be tolerated by the organization. Emergency hazards and legal requirement automatically comes into unacceptable risk.
Risk Controls: Identified risk is controlled by following methods-
Hazard elimination: Avoiding risks and adapting work to workers, (integrating health safety and ergonomics when planning new workplaces, and creating physical separation of traffic between pedestrians and vehicles).
Substitution: Replacing the dangerous with the less or non - dangerous (replacing
solvent-based paint with water-based paint).
Engineering controls: Implementing collective protective measures (isolation, machine guarding, ventilation, noise reduction, etc.)
Administrative controls: Giving appropriate instructions to workers (lock-out processes, induction, forklift driving licenses, etc.)
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Providing PPE and instructions for PPE use /maintenance (safety shoes, safety glasses, hearing protection, chemical and liquid
resistant gloves, electrical protection gloves, etc.)
HIRA will be reviewed on the yearly basis or change of procedure, material and introduction of new activity by concerned department and submit to EHS department.                                                                                            

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